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The categories of truthfulness of information

I keep hearing so much about the distinction between truth and lies. People say that things that aren't objectively true are "obviously lies". This isn't so, and there's a lot of different levels of truth.

What inspired me to write this was the detective visual novel and anime Danganronpa series, specifically the character Kokichi Oma, who uses lies to deceive playfully, and is often not known to either be telling the truth or lies. Other parts in the series revolve around finding truth using either other truths or lies.

However, there's a lot more fine detail to the level of truthfulness of information, that I'll briefly cover here.

Truths
    Objective facts
        Things that are objectively true, and always are true, independently of the universe. These things can be proved without doubt.
        Examples:
            In the common system of mathematics, there are infinitely many primes.

    Generally true facts
        Things that are generally agreed …

Appropriate punishments?

I keep hearing about people complaining about the punishment for this or that crime is too little or too much. I've got a simple (ish) idea for the calculation of appropriate punishment. This is what I would probably (naively) implement, had I known no better if I ever were to create or edit a country. Hear me out.


The decision for whether a crime is a crime is dependent on the relative loss to a person or entity. Generally, most crimes have loss and the amount of loss is to be decided between the lawmakers and those who have lost, taking into account what is gained proportionally to the ratio of that which has gained to what that which has gained already has.

Then, the appropriate punishment should be the addition of the reversal of the crime to the calculation of the amount of that which has been lost over the time over which it has been lost, to the extent that the entity which has lost is happy that the debt has been repaid.


For instance, for petty crimes like vandalism, it wo…